He also mentions losing himself in dotage—"himself" referring to Antony as Roman ruler and authority over people including Cleopatra. The office and devotion of their view Another example of deviance from the source material is how Shakespeare characterises the rule of Antony and Cleopatra. Cleopatra also succeeds in causing Antony to speak in a more theatrical sense and therefore undermine his own true authority. Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids, And is become the bellows and the fan The Tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra tells one of history's greatest and most complex love stories. The play uses the structure of history and uses a certain quality of appeal and sentimentality in fulfilling known facts, instead of merely believing his interpretations of general … Harris further implies that Romans have an uncontrollable lust and desire for "what they do not or cannot have. The play, Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare, is a tragedy written around 1606. Antony loses the battle as his troops desert en masse and he denounces Cleopatra: "This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me." As such, it is arguably one of his finest and deepest works. "Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human" (Riverhead Books, 1998), Kermode, Frank. As Janet Adelman observes, "almost all the central elements in Antony and Cleopatra are to be found in the Aeneid: the opposing values of Rome and a foreign passion; the political necessity of a passionless Roman marriage; the concept of an afterlife in which the passionate lovers meet. These criticisms are only a few examples of how the critical views of Egypt's "femininity" and Rome's "masculinity" have changed over time and how the development of feminist theory has helped in widening the discussion. O'er-picturing that Venus where we see On the brink of another bloody civil war against Pompey's forces, Antony and Octavius manage to negotiate a peace and they, along with Lepidus, feast with Pompey in celebration. By the time Antony tries to use his sword to kill himself, it amounts to little more than a stage prop". Antony and Cleopatra is essentially a male-dominated play in which the character of Cleopatra takes significance as one of few female figures and definitely the only strong female character. Betrayal is a recurring theme throughout the play. Their passion for life is continuously viewed as irresponsible, indulgent, over-sexualised and disorderly. [71]:p.63 The crossdresser, then, is not a visible object but rather a structure "enacting the failure of a dominant epistemology in which knowledge is equated with visibility". On blossoming Caesar; and this pine is bark'd, Antony and Cleopatra is William Shakespeare’s most noted and highly acclaimed tragedy. Although the characters do exercise free will to a certain extent, their success in regard to their actions ultimately depends on the luck that Fortune bestows upon them. [88] Scholar Marilyn Williamson notes that the characters may spoil their Fortune by, "riding too high" on it, as Antony did by ignoring his duties in Rome and spending time in Egypt with Cleopatra. In the play we see from the opening scene that the great soldier Antony has been caught between two godheads: on the one hand his duty, that is, his manly responsibilities as one of the triumvirs of Rome; on the other his pleasure and all consuming infatuation with the Queen of Egypt. In their first exchange in Act I, scene 1, Cleopatra says to Antony, "I'll set a bourn how far to be beloved. The play, Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare, is a tragedy written around 1606. The principal source of the Not only does history place them among the most potent lovers, but they have also been immortalized by Shakespeare’s tragedy – Antony and Cleopatra. Which to the tune of flutes kept stroke, and made CLEOPATRA. Bid them all fly; begone. Ambivalence in this play is the contrasting response of one's own character. Corrections? For Antony... turned his back for the sake of his African queen on that same Roman state established by Aeneas". Gossip and scandal leads to plots of murder and battles. He is incapable of "occupying the... politically empowering place" of the female sacrificial victim. Cleopatra's character is slightly unpindown-able, as her character identity retains a certain aspect of mystery. When the rivalry erupts into warfare, Cleopatra accompanies Antony to the Battle of Actium, where her presence proves militarily disastrous. 6. The story of their affair, their war, their defeat and, finally, their suicides has been told and retold for centuries. In this way, Harris is suggesting that Rome is no higher on any "gender hierarchy" than Egypt. As Oriana Palusci says in her article "When Boys or Women Tell Their Dreams: Cleopatra and the Boy Actor", "Cleopatra constantly occupies the centre, if not of the stage, certainly of the discourse, often charged with sexual innuendos and disparaging tirades, of the male Roman world". Burn'd on the water: the poop was beaten gold; Literary Orientalism, Postcolonialism, and Universalism. However the isolation and microscopic examination of a single aspect apart from its host environment is an effort to improve the understanding of the broader context. [32] She was an autonomous and confident ruler, sending a powerful message about the independence and strength of women. One example of this is his schema of the container as suggested by critic Donald Freeman in his article, "The rack dislimns." In this way, it is altogether different from the preceding tragedies, although the tragedy that leads to the death and destruction of Antony and Cleopatra is definitely a matter of choice rather than of circumstances that engulf the hero. Arthur Holmberg surmises, "What had at first seemed like a desperate attempt to be chic in a trendy New York manner was, in fact, an ingenious way to characterise the differences between Antony's Rome and Cleopatra's Egypt. He can retain Sicily and Sardinia, but he must help them "rid the sea of pirates" and send them tributes. The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper in an aside, indicating to the audience that she intends for Antony to adopt this rhetoric. Barbour, Richmond. The large number of scenes is necessary because the action frequently switches between Alexandria, Italy, Messina in Sicily, Syria, Athens, and other parts of Egypt and the Roman Republic. What, Eros, Eros! [86] This calls into question the extent to which the characters' actions influence the resulting consequences, and whether the characters are subject to the preferences of Fortune or Chance. Antony and Cleopatra: Is a tragedy Play [Shakespeare, William] on Amazon.com.au. This is how Rome and Egypt were face to face, in a story of passion, infidelity, power struggle and a lot of drama. So, Shakespeare's characters in Antony and Cleopatra, particularly Cleopatra in her belief that her own suicide is an exercise of agency, exhibit a Christian understanding of salvation. A more specific term comes to mind, from Richmond Barbour, that of proto-orientalism, that is orientalism before the age of imperialism. Al-Dabbagh, Abdulla. The Folio is therefore the only authoritative text today. Antony's unsuccessful Parthian campaign would have only hindered the narrative; and Shakespeare wisely omits and condenses. Octavius' general, Agrippa, suggests that Antony should marry Octavius's sister, Octavia, in order to cement the friendly bond between the two men. This stormy union was able to destabilize the Roman Empire. The boy actors portraying female sexuality on the London stage contradicted such a simple ontology. Cleopatra might be said to kill herself out of love for Antony, or because she has lost political power. After Antony departs Rome for Athens, Octavius and Lepidus break their truce with Sextus and war against him. [51] Although he vows to remain loyal in his marriage, his impulses and unfaithfulness with his Roman roots is what ultimately leads to war. (1.1.34–36), For Rome to "melt is for it to lose its defining shape, the boundary that contains its civic and military codes. [82] The implication of this historical mutability is that Shakespeare is transposing non-Romans upon his Roman characters, and thus his play assumes a political agenda rather than merely committing itself to a historical recreation. In general, characters associated with Egypt perceive their world composed of the Aristotelian elements, which are earth, wind, fire and water. The love of Cleopatra and Mark Antony is part of ancient history, but it was not an ordinary relationship, it was full of complexity and tragedy. Fitz believes that it is not possible to derive a clear, postmodern view of Cleopatra due to the sexism that all critics bring with them when they review her intricate character. Key Dates Date Written: Between 1606 and 1607. The play was first performed, by the King's Men, at either the Blackfriars Theatre or the Globe Theatre in around 1607; its first appearance in print was in the Folio of 1623. "[33]:p.415 For example, Antony only desires his wife Fulvia after she is dead: There's a great spirit gone! For her own person, [73] The abundant imagery concerning his person—"of penetration, wounds, blood, marriage, orgasm, and shame"—informs the view of some critics that the Roman "figures Antony's body as queer, that is, as an open male body... [he] not only 'bends' in devotion' but... bends over". It is in this manner that the London stage cultivated in its audience a chaste and obedient female subject, while positioning male sexuality as dominant. Cleopatra’s death appears to have played out as dramatically as the life she lived. The rivalry between Caesar and Antony is a tragedy for Rome, since it leads to civil war. Although Caesar and Antony may play political cards with each other, their successes rely somewhat on Chance, which hints at a certain limit to the control they have over political affairs. At Alexandria, Octavius eventually defeats Antony. The story of Antony and Cleopatra was often summarised as either "the fall of a great general, betrayed in his dotage by a treacherous strumpet, or else it can be viewed as a celebration of transcendental love. Historical facts are also changed: in Plutarch, Antony's final defeat was many weeks after the Battle of Actium, and Octavia lived with Antony for several years and bore him two children: Antonia Major, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Nero and maternal grandmother of the Empress Valeria Messalina, and Antonia Minor, the sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger. She locks herself in her monument, and awaits Antony's return. [66] It is an elaborate description that could never possibly be portrayed by a young boy actor. 15.51–52)". [28] However, particularly in earlier criticism, the narrative trajectory of Rome's triumph and Cleopatra's perceived weakness as a ruler have allowed readings that privilege Shakespeare's representation of a Roman worldview. Antony mends ties with his Roman roots and alliance with Caesar by entering into a marriage with Octavia, however he returns to Cleopatra. In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare uses several literary techniques to convey a deeper meaning about the differences between Rome and Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra and 6 more of the best couples in history; During his stay, Cleopatra gained Antony’s support in ridding her of the one person who had the power to disrupt her absolute rule in Egypt: Arsinoe. Shakespeare might have paid homage to this myth as a way of exploring gender roles in his own.[67]:p.65. For a discussion of this play within the context of Shakespeare’s entire corpus, see William Shakespeare: Shakespeare’s plays and poems. Tzachi Zamir points out: "The persistence of doubt is in perpetual tension with the opposing need for certainty" and he refers to the persistence of doubt that derives from the contradiction of word and deed in the characters.[50]. Like a right gipsy, hath, at fast and loose, She states specifically, "Almost all critical approaches to this play have been coloured by the sexist assumptions the critics have brought with them to their reading. Feminist scholars, in respect to Antony and Cleopatra, often examine Shakespeare's use of language when describing Rome and Egypt. She’s one of Shakespeare’s richest female characters (in terms of both wealth and character development), and can be used as a case study of both a woman in power and a woman in love. The play uses the structure of history and uses a certain quality of appeal and sentimentality in fulfilling known facts, instead of merely believing his interpretations of general … Instead he oscillates between the two. He states in Act I, scene 2, "These strong Egyptian fetters I must break,/Or lose myself in dotage. [56] She is continually described in an unearthly nature which extends to her description as the goddess Venus. Scholars have speculated that Shakespeare's original intention was to have Antony appear in Cleopatra's clothes and vice versa in the beginning of the play. The Art of Loving: Female Subjectivity and Male Discursive Traditions in Shakespeare's Tragedies. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2003. Literary critic Joyce Carol Oates explains: "Antony's agony is curiously muted for someone who has achieved and lost so much." Rackin cites the same quote, "Antony/ Shall be brought drunken forth, and I shall see/ Some squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness/ I'th' posture of a whore" to make the argument that here the audience is reminded of the very same treatment Cleopatra is receiving on Shakespeare's stage (since she is being portrayed by a boy actor) (V.ii.214–217). Antony accepts. It sprawls over two continents, several years and a wide palette of emotions. "[61] By using a Romanesque rhetoric, Cleopatra commands Antony and others in Antony's own style. Antony and Cleopatra (First Folio title: The Tragedie of Anthonie, and Cleopatra) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. Phyllis Fay Horton Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in the Humanities and Chair of Theatre and Performance Studies, University of Chicago. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Death for Cleopatra has lost ... view of tragedy did not critically accommodate this difference. However, as Gayle Greene so aptly recognises, it must be addressed that "feminist criticism [of Shakespeare] is nearly as concerned with the biases of Shakespeare's interpretors [sic]—critics, directors, editors—as with Shakespeare himself."[44]. Mark Antony—one of the triumvirs of the Roman Republic, along with Octavius and Lepidus—has neglected his soldierly duties after being beguiled by Egypt's Queen, Cleopatra. Egypt's magnetism and seeming cultural primacy over Rome have been explained by efforts to contextualise the political implications of the play within its period of production. CLEOPATRA. ” A tragedy might be as episodic as history or as complicated as a comedy. In her pavilion—cloth-of-gold of tissue— Whose bosom was my crownet, my chief end,— Phyllis Rackin points out that one of the most descriptive scenes of Cleopatra is spoken by Enobarbus: "in his famous set speech, Enobarbus evokes Cleopatra's arrival on the Cynus". [73] In reciprocal contrast, "in both Caesar and Cleopatra we see very active wills and energetic pursuit of goals". He sends the messenger to be whipped. Beguiled me to the very heart of loss. Eliot's take on Cleopatra. To cool a gipsy's lust.[55]. When threatened to be made a fool and fully overpowered by Octavius, she takes her own life: "She is not to be silenced by the new master, she is the one who will silence herself: 'My resolution and my hands I'll trust/ None about Caesar' (IV. She grows content only when her courtiers assure her that Octavia is homely: short, low-browed, round-faced and with bad hair. [3]:p.45 She is frequently vain and histrionic enough to provoke an audience almost to scorn; at the same time, Shakespeare invests her and Antony with tragic grandeur. Carried by his soldiers to the queen’s hiding place in one of her monuments, he dies in her arms. Yachnin's article focuses on Cleopatra's usurping of Antony's authority through her own and his language, while Hooks' article gives weight to Antony's attempts to assert his authority through rhetoric. "[46] Yet Fitz points out that Antony dies in Act IV while Cleopatra (and therefore Egypt) is present throughout Act V until she commits suicide at the end and "would seem to fulfill at least the formal requirements of the tragic hero."[27]:p.310. He is hoisted up to her in her monument and dies in her arms. Just like Romeo and Juliet, Antony and Cleopatra loved each other dearly, but their story ended disastrously. Cleopatra's triumph over her lover is attested to by Caesar himself, who gibes that Antony "is not more manlike/ Than Cleopatra; nor the queen of Ptolemy/ More womanly than he" (1.4.5–7). Scholars often group it as one of Shakespeare’s “Roman plays,” along with Coriolanus and Julius Caesar. Here is my space! [49] However, it is believed by critics that opposition is what makes good fiction. In 34 BCE, despite the fact that Antony’s Parthian campaign had been an extravagant failure, Antony and Cleopatra celebrated a mock Roman Triumph in the streets of Alexandria. [36] According to this reading, Egypt is viewed as destructive and vulgar; the critic Paul Lawrence Rose writes: "Shakespeare clearly envisages Egypt as a political hell for the subject, where natural rights count for nothing. Alfred Harbage Pelican/Viking editions of Shakespeare 1969/1977, preface. Eliot conveys the view of early critical history on the character of Cleopatra. His cold demeanour is representative of what the sixteenth century thought to be a side-effect of political genius[36] Conversely, Antony's focus is on valour and chivalry, and Antony views the political power of victory as a by-product of both. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Antony-and-Cleopatra-by-Shakespeare, TheatreHistory.com - Antony and Cleopatra, Antony and Cleopatra - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), William Shakespeare: Shakespeare’s plays and poems. Print. William Shakespeare’s play The Tragedy, of Antony, and Cleopatra written between 1606 and 1607, is a play filled with political intrigue, power struggles, war and its consequences, and the plight of two desperately impassioned lovers. The story of Antony and Cleopatra as Shakespeare tells it is much abridged from Plutarch. Most productions rely on rather predictable contrasts in costuming to imply the rigid discipline of the former and the languid self-indulgence of the latter. Indeed, Cleopatra's suicide has been interpreted as suggesting an indomitable quality in Egypt, and reaffirming Eastern culture as a timeless contender to the West. "[45] Egypt and Cleopatra are both represented by Brandes as uncontrollable because of their connection with the Nile River and Cleopatra's "infinite variety" (2.2.236). ...she did lie When the play opens, Antony has neglected his duties as a ruler in order to live in Egypt, where he carries on a highly visible love affair with Cleopatra. Antony has been luxuriating with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt, much to the chagrin of his counterparts and to the neglect of his duties. "The Characterization of Shakespeare's Cleopatra. The fancy outwork nature: on each side her The principal source for the story is an English translation of Plutarch's "Life of Mark Antony," from the Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans Compared Together. "Shakespeare's Language" (Penguin, 2000), A. R. Braunmuller and Michael Hattaway (eds.) The play was probably performed first circa 1607 at the Blackfriars Theatre or the Globe Theatre by the King's Men. Even though both Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra are conventionally classed as tragedies, that seems a limiting description for the later play, whose expansiveness resists the single-mindedness and economy often associated with tragedy. The perpetual swaying between alliances strengthens the ambiguity and uncertainty amid the characters loyalty and disloyalty. Her plan backfires: rather than rushing back in remorse to see the "dead" Cleopatra, Antony decides that his own life is no longer worth living. She retains her heavy involvement in the military aspect of her rule, especially when she asserts herself as "the president of [her] kingdom will/ Appear there for a man. Antony, the Roman soldier characterised by a certain effeminacy, is the main article of conquest, falling first to Cleopatra and then to Caesar (Octavius). [47] Many scholars interpret these lines as a metatheatrical reference to Shakespeare's own production, and by doing so comments on his own stage. Antony’s soldiers are distinguished from Caesar's by the red they wear. It is also a history play, since it is based on real events in ancient times. His captain's heart, Arthur L. Little, in agitative fashion, suggests that the desire to overcome the queen has a corporeal connotation: "If a black—read foreign—man raping a white woman encapsulates an iconographic truth... of the dominant society's sexual, racial, national, and imperial fears, a white man raping a black woman becomes the evidentiary playing out of its self-assured and cool stranglehold over these representative foreign bodies". Throughout his writing on Antony and Cleopatra, Eliot refers to Cleopatra as material rather than person. Although he abandoned Antony, critic Kent Cartwright claims Enobarbus' death "uncovers his greater love" for him considering it was caused by the guilt of what he had done to his friend thus adding to the confusion of the characters' loyalty and betrayal that previous critics have also discovered. Cleopatra herself sees Antony as both the Gorgon and Mars (Act 2 Scene 5, lines 118–119). [66]:p.210 It is no wonder, then, that she is such a subordinated queen. [35] Thus this reflects the difference between the Egyptians who are interconnected with the elemental earth and the Romans in their dominating the hard-surfaced, impervious world. Modern editions divide the play into a conventional five-act structure but, as in most of his earlier plays, Shakespeare did not create these act divisions. Many critics have noted the strong influence of Virgil's first-century Roman epic poem, the Aeneid, on Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Examining the critical history of the character of Cleopatra reveals that intellectuals of the 19th century and the early 20th century viewed her as merely an object of sexuality that could be understood and diminished rather than an imposing force with great poise and capacity for leadership. [58]:p.606–607 From this, connections can be made between power and the performance of the female role as portrayed by Cleopatra. Like friends long lost. Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst Triple-turn'd whore! ", If Shakespeare had indeed intended for Antony to crossdress, it would have drawn even more similarities between Antony and Hercules, a comparison that many scholars have noted many times before. (1.2.119–124). The hand could pluck her back that shov'd her on. Accordingly, the play has posed problems of generic classification and of response, for Antony and Cleopatra defies much of what we have come to associate with either a history play or a heroic tragedy: Antony shares the spotlight with Cleopatra, the point of view is uncertain, and heroic virtue is in scant supply. Makes only wars on thee. Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus (both written in 1607 and 1608) embody Shakespeare's bitterest images of political life. His Antony and Cleopatra assuredly involves death, but is the play itself “worthy” of the tragic tag? The play is accurately structured with paradox and ambivalence in order to convey the antitheses that make Shakespeare's work remarkable. Such influence should be expected, given the prevalence of allusions to Virgil in the Renaissance culture in which Shakespeare was educated. To cool a gypsy's lust. Literary critics have also spent many years developing arguments concerning the "masculinity" of Rome and the Romans and the "femininity" of Egypt and the Egyptians. Shakespeare immortalized her deeply political and intensely personal entanglement with Mark Antony in ‘Antony and Cleopatra’ (early 17th century). "Cleopatra: The Woman Behind the Name". Gajowski, Evelyn. [78], The more recent influence of New Historicism and post-colonial studies have yielded readings of Shakespeare that typify the play as subversive, or challenging the status quo of Western imperialism. Antony and Cleopatra battle over this dynamic as heads of state, yet the theme of power also resonates in their romantic relationship. It would immediately have established the sportiveness of the lovers. Rather than submit to Roman conquest, the grieving Cleopatra arranges to have a poisonous snake delivered to her in a basket of figs. Editor of. In 31 B.C. How, my love! The motif of "card playing" has a political undertone, as it relates to the nature of political dealings. Pleasure serves as a differentiating factor between Cleopatra and Antony, between Egypt and Rome, and can be read as the fatal flaw of the heroes if Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy. [57], This mysteriousness attached with the supernatural not only captures the audience and Antony, but also, draws all other characters' focus. Throughout the play, oppositions between Rome and Egypt, love and lust, and masculinity and femininity are emphasised, subverted, and commented on. [30] This sexualised act extends itself into Cleopatra's role as a seductress because it was her courage and unapologetic manner that leaves people remembering her as a "grasping, licentious harlot". It was a closely fought engagement. [84] For the Christian world, salvation relied on and belonged to the individual, while the Roman world viewed salvation as political. Manipulation and the quest for power are very prominent themes not only in the play but specifically in the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra. Eventually, he forgives Cleopatra and pledges to fight another battle for her, this time on land. After some hesitation, Sextus agrees. The play has at times even been seen as “The Greatest Love Story Ever Told”; however, rather than a passionate love affair between each other, the characters in the play … Shakespeare represents Fortune through elemental and astronomical imagery that recalls the characters' awareness of the "unreliability of the natural world". T.S. He begs one of his aides, Eros, to run him through with a sword, but Eros cannot bear to do it and kills himself. Even the word "scenes" may be inappropriate as a description, as the scene changes are often very fluid, almost montage-like. The relationship between Egypt and Rome in Antony and Cleopatra is central to understanding the plot, as the dichotomy allows the reader to gain more insight into the characters, their relationships, and the ongoing events that occur throughout the play. Betray'd I am: Cleopatra is a woman who is … Shakespeare critics such as Tracey Sedinger interpret this as Shakespeare's critique of the London stage, which, by the perpetuation of boy actors playing the part of the woman, serves to establish the superiority of the male spectator's sexuality. Still, for the purposes of this play as Shakespeare presents it, Caesar is a nasty guy. [37]:p.176–77 The Romans view Egypt as a distraction that can send even the best men off course. When Thidias, Caesar's messenger, tells Cleopatra Caesar will show her mercy if she will relinquish Antony, she is quick to respond: "Most kind messenger, Rackin argues in her article on "Shakespeare's Boy Cleopatra" that Shakespeare manipulates the crossdressing to highlight a motif of the play—recklessness—which is discussed in the article as the recurring elements of acting without properly considering the consequences. CHARMIAN: Not he; the queen. Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids, [28] This schema is important in understanding Antony's grand failure because the Roman container can no longer outline or define him—even to himself. The feminine categorization of Egypt, and subsequently Cleopatra, was negatively portrayed throughout early criticism. [71]:p.64 What is being argued here is that the cross-dressing on the London stage challenges the dominant epistemology of Elizabethan society that associated sight with knowledge. [36] Caesar is representative of the ideal king, who brings about the Pax Romana similar to the political peace established under the Tudors. And now for the person of her selfe: she was layed under a pavilion of cloth of gold of tissue, apparelled and attired like the goddesse Venus, commonly drawn in picture: and hard by her, on either hand of her, pretie fair boys apparelled as painters do set foorth god Cupid, with little fans in their hands, with which they fanned wind upon her.". "[64] Antony feels restrained by "Egyptian fetters" indicating that he recognises Cleopatra's control over him. (1.4.31–33), Ultimately the dichotomy between Rome and Egypt is used to distinguish two sets of conflicting values between two different locales. Ashamed of what he has done for the love of Cleopatra, Antony reproaches her for making him a coward, but also sets this true and deep love above all else, saying "Give me a kiss; even this repays me.". 'tis thou Antony describes the wonders of the Nile that bring drought and lush harvests.
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