The Evolution of Popular Music, by year, in the U.S.A. (1890-2009) After some good feedback from my historical look at dances, I decided to turn my attention to popular music. In 1976, British music paper Melody Maker complained that “the Sex Pistols do as much for music as World War II did for the cause of peace (Gray, 2001).” Punk bands began to abandon their sound in the late 1970s, when the punk style became assimilated into the rock mainstream. Playlists for radio stations were based on popularity (usually the Billboard Top 40 singles chart), and a popular song might be played as many as 30 or 40 times a day. King, John Lee Hooker, and Howlin’ Wolf with the country-western tradition of Roy Acuff, Ernest Tubb, and Jimmie Rodgers, and added a touch of gospel (Elvis). During the 1940s and 1950s, some musicians—most notably guitarist Les Paul, with his song “Lover (When You’re Near Me)”—began to experiment with overdubbing, in which they played back a previously recorded tape through a mixer, blended it with a live performance, and recorded the composite signal onto a second tape recorder. For most of the 20th century, gramophone records were the primary medium used for commercial music reproduction. While much has been written about the origin and evolution of pop, most claims about its history are anecdotal rather than scientific in nature. Hip-hop and gangsta rap maintained their popularity in the early 1990s with artists such as Tupac Shakur, the Notorious B.I.G., Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, and Snoop Dogg at the top of the charts. caused a shift in the hip-hop industry toward less violent music. Rickenbacker, “Early Years: The Earliest Days of the Electric Guitar,” Rickenbacker International Corporation, June 22, 2010, http://www.rickenbacker.com/history_early.asp; Mary Bellis, “The History of Guitar and Electric Guitar,” About.com Guide, http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/guitar_2.htm. This would have a huge impact on the popular music industry, enabling members of the middle class to purchase technology that was previously available only to an elite few. Muddy Waters was one of the most famous Chicago blues musicians. The flat discs were cheaper and easier to produce than were the cylinders they replaced, enabling the mass production of sound recordings. In 1948, Columbia Records perfected the 12-inch 33 rpm long-playing (LP) disc, which could play up to 25 minutes per side and had a lower level of surface noise than the earlier (and highly breakable) shellac discs (Lomax, 2003). Determine the influences and characteristics of each genre of popular music. New technology continued to develop in the 1950s with the introduction of television. For some, selfish views took the place of concern with social issues and political activism, causing writer Tom Wolfe to label the 1970s the “me” decade (Wolfe, 1976). You Get to Listen to Music. in 1997. However, when radio broadcasting emerged in the early 1920s, both gramophone sales and sheet-music sales began to suffer. Unlike rock music, hip-hop maintained its popularity, with more commercial, polished artists such as Kanye West, Jay-Z, Lupe Fiasco, and OutKast achieving enormous success. “The ‘Me’ Decade and the Third Great Awakening,” New York Magazine, August 23, 1976, http://nymag.com/news/features/45938/. Musically, this ideological shift resulted in the creation of glam rock, an extravagant, self-indulgent form of rock that incorporated flamboyant costumes, heavy makeup, and elements of hard rock and pop. Popular bands included the Backstreet Boys, ’N Sync, and the Spice Girls. An improvisational form of music that was primarily instrumental, jazz incorporated a variety of styles, including African rhythms, gospel, and blues. However, these world music genres are often evolutions of much older geographically linked Folk music. Although improvisation was allowed during solo performances, the format became more structured, resulting in the swing style of jazz that became popular in the 1930s. The invention of the reel-to-reel tape recorder and the development of vinyl records in the 1940s drastically improved this process. Pop stars and their music changed in the 1980s with the … Broadly referring to music that is passed down orally through the generations, folk music retained an unpolished, amateur quality that inspired participation and social awareness. ³ØX7‹XÞ´¢¦üCËu­)ò'Έ×:â4çCn Popular music as we know it originated out of the Tin Pan Alley tradition that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century in which composers, singers, and publishers worked together to create hit songs. Genova, Tom. The terms popular music and pop music are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many disparate styles. The radio industry adapted by focusing on music, joining forces with the recording industry to survive. Lomax, Alan. When the Beatles arrived in New York in 1964, they were met by hundreds of reporters and police officers and thousands of fans. This may seem limiting today, but at the time it allowed for exciting innovations. Britney Spears – Britney Spears toxic (Bbspears) – CC BY-SA 2.0. Artists such as Common, Mos Def, and the Black Eyed Peas found success even though they didn’t represent traditional stereotypes of hip-hop. The Copyright Act of 1911 had imposed a royalty on all records of copyrighted musical works to compensate for the loss in revenue to composers and authors. Describe the evolution of pop music throughout the last century. This loss became even more prominent during the mid-1920s, when improvements in electrical recording drastically increased sales of gramophones and gramophone records. Source: “The Evolution of Popular Music: USA 1960-2010,” by researchers at Queen Mary University of London, in Royal Society Open Science. The primary difference between popular music and classical music is that, whereas classical artists were exalted for their individuality and expected to differ stylistically from other classical composers, popular artists were praised for conforming to the tastes of their intended audience. The shooting deaths of gangsta rappers Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G. King surged in popularity among White and Black teenagers alike. In my U2 class, we listen to … The first stirrings of popular or pop music—any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience or subculture—began in the late 19th century, with discoveries by Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner. VersusLiveQuizShow – Taylor Swift (2007) – CC BY-SA 2.0. Originating in the Mississippi Delta, just upriver from New Orleans, blues music was exemplified in the work of W. C. Handy, Ma Rainey, Robert Johnson, and Lead Belly, among others. The origins of pop music can be found in a variety of different musical styles, including the jazzy piano melodies of ragtime, a musical trend associated with the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Pop music is often considered a reflection of changing culture in the United States — and between 1960 and 2010, songs featured in the Billboard Hot 100 varied greatly. The introduction of the reel-to-reel tape recorder paved the way for several innovations that would transform the music industry. The rivalry culminated with the murders of Shakur in 1996 and B.I.G. While some gangsta rappers from the 1990s—like Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg—softened their images, other rappers—such as 50 Cent and Eminem—continued to project a tough image and to use violent lyrics. Those considered as “pop” musicians started borrowing rhythms from jazz and blues musicians. “Sampling the 1970s in Hip-Hop,” Popular Music 21 (2003): 41–56. Its run from 1982-86, when rock musicians occupied nearly 60% of available Hot 100 spots, is by far the most … Vaudeville and Ragtime Dance The widespread commercialism of music and dance dates back to the turn of the century when Vaudeville was the popular venue. Pop music stayed strong throughout the decade with Gwen Stefani, Mariah Carey, Beyoncé, Katy Perry, and Lady Gaga achieving mainstream success. The first commercially available tape recorders were monophonic, meaning that they only had one track on which to record sound onto magnetic tape. Radio was an affordable medium that enabled listeners to experience events as they took place. Frenetic showmen Little Richard and Chuck Berry were early pioneers of rock and roll, and their wild stage performances became characteristic of the genre. Popular music is classied into genres such as country, rock and roll, rhythm and blues (R’n’B) as well as a multitude of subgenres (dance-pop, synthpop, heartland rock, roots rock etc.). For at least the past two centuries, much of what is dynamic in American music arose out of a continual process of sampling, fusing, and appropriating the different musics that make up American popular song. So around 1900, around the world, many different genres of music had stemmed. Following the devastation of the first World War, Twenties music was quite upbeat and optimistic as the economy boomed and parties roared despite prohibition in the US. ... Rock and soul were the most popular music genres from the mid-60s to mid-70s. Although U.S. artists frequently reached the top of the charts overseas, few European artists achieved success on this side of the Atlantic. To rectify this, we investigate the US Billboard Hot 100 … üÓÏqɺƒ ¿F¨a°- ê8diyDe»$?•yñ×®RœÒY.ªÁE-¸¨à¢\´‚‹6^D¨q{o‹(•ÊÛáà ÓÇw‹4+•ÙŒl ê‡ÖÝÖÄû(€¢z¶cÙ[ `uPwv¬B’-±G¶e©ëÚú«é â^ö•fJ€!šîÀb¹ELËd±f¨^ÅEIXß°(ào°‘»½Jj­.Q Wolfe, Tom. In the late 19th century, the lax copyright laws that existed in the United States at the beginning of the century were strengthened, providing an opportunity for composers, singers, and publishers to work together to earn money by producing as much music as possible. Technology wasn’t the only revolution that took place during the 1950s. Records were created especially for discos, and record companies churned out tunes that became huge hits on the dance floor. Music in the 1920's was dominated by jazz, blues and the traveling dance bands that played what was popular at the time. “Number of TV Households in America,” Television History – The First 75 Years, http://www.tvhistory.tv/Annual_TV_Households_50-78.JPG. The Evolution of Music Genre Popularity. This new … The Clash: Return of the Last Gang in Town (London: Helter Skelter, 2001), 147. During the early days of its development, the gramophone was viewed as a scientific novelty that posed little threat to sheet music because of its poor sound quality. Elvis Presley, a singer and guitarist, the “King of Rock and Roll,” further helped make music written by Black individuals acceptable to mainstream White audiences and also helped popularize rockabilly—a blend of rock and country music—with Black audiences during the mid-1950s. In 1952, the Dolphin’s of Hollywood record store in Los Angeles, which specialized in R&B music, noted that 40 percent of its sales were to White individuals (Szatmary, 2010). The 2000s began right where the 1990s left off, with young singers such as Christina Aguilera and Destiny’s Child ruling the pop charts. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6729847.stm, http://www.edsullivan.com/artists/the-rolling-stones, http://www.elvis.com/about-the-king/biography_.aspx, http://www.tvhistory.tv/Annual_TV_Households_50-78.JPG, http://www.notablebiographies.com/Gi-He/Gordy-Jr-Berry.html, http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_saa_bobdylan.html, http://www.rickenbacker.com/history_early.asp, http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventions/a/guitar_2.htm. Popular Genres:Jazz, Blues, Dance, Broa… Marketed under the name rhythm and blues, or R&B, the sexually suggestive lyrics in songs such as “Sexy Ways” and “Sixty Minute Man” and the electrified guitar and wailing harmonica sounds appealed to young listeners. At the heart of jazz, the blues was a creation of former Black slaves who adapted their African musical heritage to the American environment. EVOLUTION OF MODERN POPULAR MUSIC is the first in a series of books dealing with the history of music by author, musician, entertainment lawyer, and historian Mark Vinet. More recently, alternative rock has fragmented into even more specific subgenres. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World (New York: Continuum, 2003), 483. After the Vietnam War ended, college students began to settle down and focus on careers and families. However, it was the introduction of a White man who sang songs written by Black musicians that helped rock and roll really spread across state and racial lines. As the decade progressed, social attitudes toward racial segregation relaxed and big bands became more racially integrated. From the very beginning, the record industry faced challenges from new technology. In the 50s began the true popular period of the soul music. Equally flamboyant, but rising out of a more electronic sound, disco also emerged in the 1970s. The evolution of Pop dance goes hand-in-hand with the evolution of popular industrialized music. Following Freed’s trial, an antipayola statute was passed, making payola a misdemeanor crime. B. Combining R&B, pop, gospel, and blues into a genre known as soul, vocalists such as James Brown, Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, and Wilson Pickett sang about the lives of Black Americans. The 33 rpm discs became the standard form for full albums and would dominate the recorded music industry until the advent of the compact disc (CD). People who enjoyed opera at the turn of the 20th century saw the rise of vaudeville and ragtime in the Tin Pan Alley era. Although banned from some stations, others embraced the popular new music. Their appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show a few days later was the largest audience for an American television program, with approximately one in three Americans (74 million) tuning in (Gould, 2007). A primarily British phenomenon, glam rock was popularized by acts such as Slade, David Bowie, the Sweet, Elton John, and Gary Glitter. Such genres are, however, but imperfect … This is thanks to innovation in technology and the creativity of musicians, taking influences from many different genres and putting their own spin on them. The first stirrings of popular or pop music—any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience or subculture—began in the late 19th century, with discoveries by Thomas Edison and … In the 60s Motown label started to really make … Nirvana’s angst-filled lyrics spoke to many members of Generation X, launching the band into the mainstream. Prior to 1964, rock and roll was primarily an American export. In modern societies, cultural change seems ceaseless. During the 1940s, a mutually beneficial alliance between sound recording and radio existed. Assess the impact of three technologies that changed the face of the music industry. PBS, “Bob Dylan,” PBS.org: American Roots Music: The Songs & the Artists, http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_saa_bobdylan.html. Allegedly named because the cacophony of many pianos being played in the publishers’ demo rooms sounded like people pounding on tin pans, Tin Pan Alley soon became a prolific source of popular music, with its publishers mass-producing sheet music to satisfy the demands of a growing middle class. The Year the Music Died: 1964–1972: A Commentary on the Best Era of Pop Music, and an Irreverent Look at the Musicians and Social Movements of the Time (Austin: Bridgeway Books, 2007), 292. The ascendance of Tin Pan Alley coincided with the emergence of jazz in New Orleans. Along with hip-hop and gangsta rap, alternative rock came to the forefront in the 1990s with grunge. It offers an in-depth study and detailed analysis of the dramatic events and talented individuals who created and later influenced the eclectic, vibrant, and … The urban Chicago blues typified by artists such as Muddy Waters, Howlin’ Wolf, and B. Radio sales dramatically increased throughout the 1920s because radios were an affordable way to listen to free music and live events. Whereas classical artists were exalted for their individuality and expected to differ stylistically from other classical artists, popular artists were praised for conforming to the tastes of their intended audience. Opera singers were the stars of the 19th century, and their music generated most of the sheet music sales in the United States. BBC, “Making ends meet in the 70s,” BBC News Magazine, June 7, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6729847.stm. While the reel-to-reel recorders were in the early stages of development, families listened to records on their gramophones. Heavily influenced by his rural Southern roots, Presley combined the R&B music of bluesmen B. By hiring songwriters to compose music based on public demand and mainstream tastes, the Tin Pan Alley publishers introduced the concept of popular music as we know it. The music industry as we know it was just beginning and all things seemed possible. Popular disco artists included KC and the Sunshine Band, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, and Donna Summer, who helped to pioneer its electronic sound. In 1877, Edison discovered that sound could be reproduced using a strip of tinfoil wrapped around a rotating metal cylinder. Hip-hop dominated the 1980s, and its popularity continued into the 1990s and 2000s. Early hip-hop artists sampled all types of music, like funk, soul, and jazz, later adding special effects to the samples and experimenting with techniques such as rotating or scratching records back and forth to create a rhythmic pattern. The Sex Pistols, fronted by Johnny Rotten, developed an aggressive, pumping sound that appealed to a rebellious generation of listeners, although the band was disparaged by many critics at the time. Describe the evolution of pop music throughout the last century. Numerous publishers began to emerge in an area of New York that became known as Tin Pan Alley. Even in the Persian empire, classical Persian music became Iranian pop music (which is a delightful mix of sitar, guitar, piano and violin) with even more exotic instruments. Amid the roadblocks to pop music, the industry continued to grow and soon, the barriers between races blurred. In essence, World music is contemporary music performed and created all around the world, but falling just short in influence to become popular music, for example RaÏ, Afrobeat and Highlife. Protest music in the 1960s was closely aligned with the hippie culture, in which some viewed taking drugs as a form of personal expression and free speech. In 1877, Edison discovered that sound could be reproduced using a strip of tinfoil wrapped around a rotating metal cylinder. The 78 revolutions per minute (rpm) disc had been the accepted recording medium for many years despite the necessity of changing the disc every 5 minutes. This situation changed almost overnight with the arrival of British pop phenomenon the Beatles. Gray, Marcus. Dealing with themes of personal adversity, overcoming hard luck, and other emotional turmoil, the blues is a 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar. The greater range and sensitivity of the electrical broadcasting microphone revolutionized gramophone recording to such an extent that sheet music sales plummeted. Rhythm and blues laid the groundwork for rock and roll that shook up popular music in the 1950s. Chicago blues musicians such as Muddy Waters were the first to electrify the blues through the use of electric guitars and to blend urban style with classic Southern blues. The Tin Pan Alley tradition of song publishing continued throughout the first half of the 20th century with the show tunes and soothing ballads of Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin, and songwriting teams of the early 1950s, such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller. The reaction Presley inspired among hordes of adolescent girls—screaming, crying, rioting—solidified his reputation as the first true rock and roll icon. But as soul peaked in 1974 and slowly began to fade, rock continued to climb. The introduction of television into people’s homes threatened the existence of the radio industry. It proved to be a precursor for the punk movement in the late 1970s. The flux of fashion is especially obvious for popular music. Music Genres Timeline Timeline Description: The timeline below provides an overview of popular musical styles from the Baroque period through the modern world. This video was inspired by another video on YouTube Here’s the link https://youtu.be/XR2gE_F3aJQ Disclaimer: I do not claim ownership to … The introduction of radio broadcasting provided a valuable link between urban city centers and small, rural towns. Artists such as Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead, and the Doors believed that the listening experience could be enhanced using mind-altering drugs (Rounds, 2007). The flowering of various musical styles since the early 20th century becomes clear, with a variety of different music options. To analyse the evolution of musical variety we began by classifying our songs. This electrified form of blues provided the foundations of rock and roll. In the early 1980s, a second wave of rap artists brought inner-city rap to American youths by mixing it with hard guitar rock. Lots and Lots of Music. The gospel inspiration mixed with blues and influences from Africa shook the music world with originality and innovation. However, in America and Great Britain, the 1900 … Ronald D. Cohen (New York: Routledge, 2003), 102. Notable Biographies, “Berry Gordy Jr. Biography,” Encyclopedia of World Biography, http://www.notablebiographies.com/Gi-He/Gordy-Jr-Berry.html. However, his attempt to reach a broader crowd inspired the folk rock genre, pioneered by the Los Angeles band the Byrds (PBS). Demers, Joanna. Nonetheless, there was a considerable amount of crossover among audiences. This ultimately resulted in payola—the illegal practice of receiving payment from a record company for broadcasting a particular song on the radio. Choose a decade between 1900 and 2010. Surf music, embodied by artists such as the Beach Boys, Jan and Dean, and Dick Dale, celebrated the aspects of youth culture in California. By the end of the decade, country artists, like Carrie Underwood and Taylor Swift, transitioned from country stars to bona fide pop stars.
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